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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 39  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 247-251

Fingerprint patterns, a novel risk factor for breast cancer in Egyptian populations: a case–control study


Department of General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt

Date of Submission17-Oct-2019
Date of Decision12-Nov-2019
Date of Acceptance03-Dec-2019
Date of Web Publication14-Feb-2020

Correspondence Address:
MD Joseph R.I Awad
El Shimaa St, EL Kawmia, Zagazig, Sharkia
Egypt
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ejs.ejs_189_19

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  Abstract 


Context Every single person has got a unique dermal ridge pattern; this pattern is genetically determined. Dermal ridge patterns once established become fixed all throughout life. Fingerprint patterns offer a simple, convenient, and economical technique for recognition of some diseases.
Aims The aim of this study is to find a relation between dermal ridge patterns and breast cancer among female Egyptian populations.
Patients and methods A total of 500 patients with breast cancer and 500 women without cancer were included in our study. The fingerprints of all fingers of both hands of our patients and control group were obtained, using classic method of ink and paper. The fingerprints were then examined by a forensic medicine specialist for identification of the patterns and ridge count.
Results The whorl pattern was the commonest pattern among the diseased group, representing 46%; this pattern was significantly increased when compared with the same pattern in the control group. It was found that the mean ridge count of the diseased group was less than that of control group. The frequency of six or more whorls was more common in the diseased group (46%) when compared with the same number in control group (13.4%).
Conclusion Fingerprint patterns and ridge counts are easy, simple, noninvasive, cheap, and applicable methods for screening high-risk groups of breast cancer.

Keywords: breast cancer, fingerprint, finger ridge count


How to cite this article:
Abdelhamid MI, Lotfy M, Awad JR. Fingerprint patterns, a novel risk factor for breast cancer in Egyptian populations: a case–control study. Egypt J Surg 2020;39:247-51

How to cite this URL:
Abdelhamid MI, Lotfy M, Awad JR. Fingerprint patterns, a novel risk factor for breast cancer in Egyptian populations: a case–control study. Egypt J Surg [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Feb 24];39:247-51. Available from: http://www.ejs.eg.net/text.asp?2020/39/1/247/278325




  Introduction Top


Breast cancer is rated as the most prevalent cancer among women worldwide, and in excess of half a million fatalities were documented as casualty of this disease in the past decade [1]. The hereditary propensity of this disease was first discussed more than 300 years ago when a young woman got affected, with a history of the disease being discovered in her aunt and grandmother [2].

Approximately 10% of patients with breast cancer have inherited predilection, and even a higher percentage already has a first-degree relative with the same disease [3],[4]. This was first experienced following the discovery of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in addition to PTEN and TP53 [5],[6],[7],[8].

Every single person has got a unique dermal ridge pattern; this pattern is genetically determined. Fingerprint pattern is regarded as an indicator of congenital and intrauterine anomalies. Dermal ridge patterns once established become fixed all throughout life. Fingerprint patterns offer a simple, convenient, and economical technique for recognition of some diseases.

However, human fingerprints, being formed in the embryonic stage and having a unique characteristic pattern, are controlled genetically. Three basic fingerprint patterns are well recognized: ‘loop’ (radial and ulnar), ‘whorl,’ and ‘arch’ [9],[10]. as in [Figure 2],[Figure 3],[Figure 4],[Figure 5],[Figure 6]. Several research studies have reported the genetic diversity of individual fingerprints being linked to various disorders of genetic origin too (e.g. Down’s syndrome and other pediatric hematological and psychological disorders) [11],[12],[13].
Figure 1 Ridge Count from core to delta point (Hawthorne, 2009) [21].

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Figure 2 Whorl pattern.

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Figure 3 Radial loop pattern.

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Figure 4 Ulnar loop pattern.

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Figure 5 Arch pattern.

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Figure 6 Composite/compound pattern.

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The distribution of fingerprint differs among individual fingers. Similarity between the 23 populations from different countries is called ‘universal distribution’ for the 10 fingers. The ulnar loop or the whorl is always the most common fingerprint pattern type in any country around the world (whorl–whorl–ulnar loop–whorl–ulnar) from thumb to pinky. The highest ‘pattern intensity index’ in the world is present in populations located in Oceania, who have whorls to represent the most common fingerprint pattern, and in many (east) Asian countries, a likewise tendency is seen, whereas in most other areas worldwide, loops are clearly the most common. The lowest ‘pattern index’ in the world is found in populations located in the south of the Africa [14].

In this research, we planned to disclose the relationship between fingerprint patterns and ridge count and breast cancer among Egyptian female citizens.


  Aim Top


The aim of this study is to find a relation between dermal ridge patterns and breast cancer among Egyptian female populations.


  Patients and methods Top


This case–control study was conducted at General Surgery Department between April 2018 and Aug 2019. The study was approved by local ethical committee of our faculty, and informed consent was obtained from all patients.

A total of 500 patients with breast cancer and 500 women without cancer were included in our study.

Inclusion criteria

The following were the inclusion criteria:
  1. All patients newly diagnosed as having breast cancer and admitted to our unit.
  2. All patients with breast cancer who came for follow-up at the outpatient clinic.
  3. Control group included 500 women without cancer, with no family history of breast or ovarian cancer.


Exclusion criteria

Patients or women’s with skin disease, burn, scar or any deformities affecting fingerprint were excluded.

The fingerprints of all fingers both hands of our patients and control group were obtained using classic method of ink and paper.

The fingerprints were then examined by a forensic medicine specialist for identification of the patterns and ridge count.

Examination was done using magnifying lens to identify the specific pattern of the fingerprints and for the ridge count.


  Results Top


The current study was conducted on 500 patients with breast cancer and 500 healthy women, with no family history of breast cancer.

The fingerprint patterns in the right hand of both diseased and control groups are summarized in [Table 1]; the whorl pattern was the commonest pattern among the diseased group, representing 46%; this pattern was significantly increased when compared with the same pattern in the control group.
Table 1 Fingerprint pattern in right hand

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The fingerprint pattern in left hand of both diseased and control groups are summarized in [Table 2]; the whorl pattern was the commonest pattern among the diseased group, representing 48%; this pattern was significantly increased when compared with the same pattern in the control group.
Table 2 Fingerprint pattern in Lt hand

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The finger ridges in each finger in the right hand were calculated in both diseased and control group. It was found that the mean ridge count of the diseased group was less than that of the control group, as shown in [Table 3] and [Figure 1].
Table 3 Ridge count in right hand

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The SD and P value were calculated in [Table 4]; it shows that there was a significant difference between ridge counts in both groups (P=0.014) in the right hand.
Table 4 Mean and standard deviation of right hand

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The finger ridges in each finger in the left hand were calculated in both diseased and control group. It was found that the mean ridge count of the diseased group was less than that of control group, as shown in [Table 5].
Table 5 Ridge count in left hand

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The SD and P value were calculated in [Table 6]; it shows that there was a significant difference between ridge counts in both groups (P=0.014) in the left hand.
Table 6 Mean and standard deviation of left hand

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The count of whorl pattern in all fingers of diseased and control groups is summarized in [Table 7].
Table 7 Counting whorl pattern in all fingers of diseased and control groups

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The frequency of six or more whorls was more common in the diseased group (46%) when compared with the same number in the control group (13.4%) ([Table 8]).
Table 8 Frequency of whorls between diseased and control group

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  Discussion Top


Breast cancer is one of the most important diseases that affect women all over the world. In our study, we examined the fingerprints of all fingers regarding the specific patterns and ridge count. We found that there was a significant statistical difference regarding print pattern issue between the two groups, where the whorl pattern significantly dominates in the diseased group whereas the radial loop and arch patterns significantly dominate in the control group, and these records are similar in both hands. Chintamani et al. [15] had the same dominance regarding the arch pattern like ours, but regarding the loop pattern, their results were opposite to ours, being significantly dominated in the diseased, whereas there was no significant difference in whorl pattern. Moreover, in a study done by Abilasha et al. [16], the authors found the same dominance regarding the patterns and its distribution in the study groups in the left hand.

Regarding the ridge count, in our study, both the count for each individual finger and the mean for all fingers in each hand showed statistically significant increase in favor of the control group. Typically, the same results were recorded by Chintamani et al. [15], for both individual fingers, and the mean for each hand (12.4 for cases vs. 19.6 for controls). Raizada et al. [17] did prove that decreasing ridge counts is more accompanied by increased risk of developing breast cancer when compared with increasing ridge counts. They found more cancer cases with total ridge counts below 50; however, if the count increased above 126, the control group dominated.

The whorl pattern was found to be the commonest pattern among the diseased group in comparison with the control one. This is similar to Murray et al. [18] and Madhavi et al. [19], but in contrary with the pattern among patients with breast cancer in Indian populations, and also in contrary with Raizada et al. [17], who found that the arch pattern is the commonest among Indian population.In the current study, we observe that the presence of six whorls or more was found in breast cancer population when counting the total number of whorls in all fingers; this is similar to Chintamani et al. [15] and Sakineh et al. (2006) [20,21].


  Conclusion Top


Fingerprint patterns and ridge counts are easy, simple, noninvasive, cheap, and applicable methods for screening high-risk groups of breast cancer.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

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Bukelo M, Kanchan T, Unnikrishnan B, Rekha T, Ashoka B, Rau A. Study of finger print patterns in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2011; 7:21–25.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
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Fingerprints World Map - Global Distribution of Whorls, Loops & Arches. May 11, 2011. Available at: http://fingerprints.handresearch.com/dermatoglyphics/fingerprints-world-map-whorls-loops-arches.htm#distribution. [Last updates March, 2015].  Back to cited text no. 14
    
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Chintamani XX, Khandelwal R, Mittal A, Saijanani S, Tuteja A, Bansal A, Bhatnagar D. Qualitative and quantitative dermatoglyphic traits in patients with breast cancer: a prospective clinical study. BMC Cancer 2007; 7:44.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
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    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7], [Table 8]



 

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