|Year : 2017 | Volume
| Issue : 4 | Page : 419-423
Pattern of maxillectomies: an analysis of 44 cases in a tertiary referral hospital, Sokoto, Northwest Nigeria
Abdurrazaq O Taiwo BChD, FAOCMF, FWACS 1, Mohammed Abdullahi2, Ramat O Braimah3, Adebayo A Ibikunle3, Kufre R Iseh2, Olalekan M Gbotolorun4, Moshood F Adeyemi5, Mike Adeyemi4
1 Department of Surgery, College of Health Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Nigeria
2 Department of Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT), Head and Neck Surgery, Nigeria
3 Department of Dental and Maxillofacial Surgery, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital (UDUTH), Sokoto, Nigeria
4 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria
5 Department of Dental and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria
|Date of Submission||04-Jul-2017|
|Date of Acceptance||19-Jul-2017|
|Date of Web Publication||13-Nov-2017|
Abdurrazaq O Taiwo
Department of Surgery, College of Health Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, PMB - 12003, Sokoto
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
The maxilla occupies a prominent and crucial position in the facial structure. Maxillectomy is an ablative surgical resection of the maxilla with attendant serious cosmetic deficit. There is paucity of data on the indications and pattern of maxillectomy in our centre. This study would help in better management of patients requiring this treatment.
The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of presentation of patients for maxillectomy at Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria.
Patients and methods
This study was a retrospective review of theatre records of the hospital between January 2007 and March 2017. Patients data were collected for sociodemographics (age and sex), indication(s), clinical presentations, diagnosis/histologic subtypes, and type of maxillectomy performed.
During the 11-year study period, a total of 44 patients underwent maxillectomy, aged 4–77 years (mean±SD=37.6±19.6 years) with a modal age of 31–40 years [11 (25.0%)]. There were 26 (59.1%) male and 18 (40.9%) female patients (male : female=1.8 : 1). Overall, benign lesions accounted for 12 (27.3%) cases and malignant lesions for 32 (72.7%) cases. There was statistical difference between the ages of benign (mean±SD=24.9±16.2 years) and malignant lesions (mean±SD=42.3±18.8 years) (t=−2.83, d.f.=42, P=0.0071). Benign lesions [11 (25.0%)] were commonly detected in those aged 40 years and younger, whereas malignancies [16 (36.4%)] were equally distributed across both divide. Total maxillectomy [34 (77.3%)] was the major surgical resection carried out, followed by subtotal maxillectomy [6 (13.6%)].
There is urgent need to focus on the prevention of orofacial malignancy to avoid surgery and complex rehabilitative expenses.
Keywords: maxillectomy, orofacial malignancy, squamous cell carcinoma
|How to cite this article:|
Taiwo AO, Abdullahi M, Braimah RO, Ibikunle AA, Iseh KR, Gbotolorun OM, Adeyemi MF, Adeyemi M. Pattern of maxillectomies: an analysis of 44 cases in a tertiary referral hospital, Sokoto, Northwest Nigeria. Egypt J Surg 2017;36:419-23
|How to cite this URL:|
Taiwo AO, Abdullahi M, Braimah RO, Ibikunle AA, Iseh KR, Gbotolorun OM, Adeyemi MF, Adeyemi M. Pattern of maxillectomies: an analysis of 44 cases in a tertiary referral hospital, Sokoto, Northwest Nigeria. Egypt J Surg [serial online] 2017 [cited 2018 Nov 15];36:419-23. Available from: http://www.ejs.eg.net/text.asp?2017/36/4/419/218170
| Introduction|| |
The midface with complex anatomical landscape and components majorly occupies the middle third of the face . It partakes in activities such as aesthetics, phonation, olfactory, breathing, mastication and swallowing ,. These are crucial to the attainment of high quality of life and socioeconomic and psychological wellbeing. Anatomically, the maxilla is the largest and most prominent bone of the midface . Together with the alveolus and teeth, it is often referred to as upper jaw. It bilaterally engages central position articulating in various directions with other contiguous bones and structures ,,. It also houses and supports delicate tissues and organs such as the eyes with other orbital contents: nasal cavity, the maxillary teeth and drainage channels such as nasolacrimal duct ,. The paranasal sinuses are air filled epithelial-lined structures in the skull, of which the maxillary antrum is the largest and occupies a large central portion of the maxilla ,,.
Primary benign and malignant tumours of the maxilla are not uncommon and are often the cause of partial or complete surgical removal of the maxilla ,,,,. These lesions could arise from the skin, nasal cavity, the maxillary sinus, oral mucosa, periodontium, minor salivary gland, bone, muscle, connective tissue, odontogenic epithelial remnants and others ,,. Secondary lesions could emerge as a result of metastasis from other parts of the body such as breast, ovaries, uterus, prostate and others . Maxillary tumours frequently remain asymptomatic, and hence late presentation persists, especially in low-income countries, with Nigeria inclusive ,,,,.
Maxillectomy is an ablative surgical resection of the maxilla with or without removal of allied anatomic structures ,,. It results in significant compromise of sociopyschological status and functional issues such as sight, cosmetic, speech and mastication ,,,, and thus present tremendous prosthetic and reconstructive challenges ,,,,,,.
There are various conflicting classifications and terms for maxillectomy, which include medial, low, high, limited, subtotal, total, hemi, extended, radical and others ,,,,,,,,,. These classifications used several criteria − for instance, the nature of the maxillary lesion, site of maxilla involved, surrounding anatomical structures affected and prosthetic/reconstructive hurdles .
There is paucity of data on this pertinent topic in Nigeria, especially in North West region. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe the pattern of maxillectomy at Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria.
| Patients and methods|| |
This was a retrospective study of clinical, theatre and histopathological records of the hospital between January 2007 and March 2017. Patients’ data were collected for sociodemographics (age and sex), indication(s), clinical presentations, diagnosis/histologic subtypes and type of maxillectomy performed. Those with incomplete clinical and histological records were excluded from the study.
Maxillectomy was classified using Durrani et al.’s  classification.
- Alveolectomy involves removal of alveolar bone alone with no oronasal or oroantral fistula.
- Subtotal maxillectomy involves resection of the maxilla sparing the orbital wall of the maxilla but causing oronasal and oroantral fistula.
- Total maxillectomy involves complete removal of the maxilla, including the orbital wall, with preservation of the orbital contents.
- Radical maxillectomy involves complete removal of the maxilla and orbital contents.
- Composite maxillectomy involves removal of the facial skin, soft palate and/or any other part of oral cavity in addition to maxillary resection.
Data collected were entered into Microsoft Excel and subjected to statistical analysis using Analyze-it version 2.25 Excel 12+ (Microsoft Office, Washington, USA) (2013) and presented in frequencies and tables. χ2-Test was applied to determine the differences between categorical variables. Paired t-test was used to check mean differences between the groups and P value 0.05 or less was regarded as statistically significance. Ethical clearance was obtained from Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital’s Research and Ethics Committee.
| Results|| |
During the 11-year study period, a total of 44 patients underwent maxillectomy, aged 4–77 years (mean±SD=37.6±19.6 years), with a modal age of 31–40 years [11 (25.0%)]. There were 26 (59.1%) male and 18 (40.9%) female patients (male : female=1.8 : 1) ([Table 1]). There was no sex difference in terms of age (P=0.9343). Many patients [43 (97.7%)] primarily presented for treatment at 6 months and above after the initial onset of the lesion.
|Table 1 Age and sex distributions of patients who underwent maxillectomy|
Click here to view
Forty-three (97.7%) patients presented with swelling as the key primary clinical feature; however, a lot of patients had constellations of findings such as headache, pain, epistaxis, nasal obstruction, proptosis and visual loss. Others include malocclusion, limited mouth opening, dysphagia, bleeding, epiphoria and hyposuria.
Overall, benign lesions accounted for 12 (27.3%) cases and malignant lesions 32 (72.7%) cases ([Figure 1]). There was statistical difference between the ages of benign (mean±SD=24.9±16.2 years) and malignant lesions (mean±SD=42.3±18.8 years) (t=−2.83, d.f.=42, P=0.0071). Benign lesions [11 (25.0%)] were commonly detected in those aged 40 years and younger, whereas malignancies [16 (36.4%)] were equally distributed across both divide ([Table 2]).
|Table 2 Histopatholgic type and age category of patients who underwent maxillectomy|
Click here to view
Ossifying fibroma was the most prevalent benign histopathological finding [6 (13.9%)]. The prime malignancies were salivary gland lesions [12 (27.3%)] (mucoepidermoid and adenocystic carcinomas) and squamous cell carcinoma [11 (25.0%)] ([Table 2]). Total maxillectomy [34 (77.3%)] was the major surgical resection carried out, followed by subtotal maxillectomy [6 (13.6%)] ([Table 3]).
| Discussion|| |
The present study revealed a marginal male preponderance in concordance with earlier works from Lagos and Kaduna ,. It, however, contradicts the findings of Eziyi et al.  from Ile-Ife that showed female dominance.
The fourth decade was the most predominant in this research, which does not resonate with earlier studies that showed that most lesions involving the maxilla occurred mostly among those above the age of 40 years ,,,,,,,. This could be attributed to the fact that in this study those in this age group had a greater incidence of malignant salivary gland lesions such as mucoepidermoid carcinoma, which is more common in younger age bracket compared with Squamous cell carcinoma, which has a higher incidence in older age groups.
Studies have revealed that in developing countries a number of patients present late, making it challenging to ascertain the location of the initial site of origin of these maxillary lesions ,,,. Hence, these lesions spread to adjoining anatomical sites such as orbit, nasopharynx, skull base and intracranium. Those located posterior tend to spread backward, and hence are not easily noticeable until clear signs such as nasal obstruction, epistaxis or visual impairments occur. In contrast, anterior lesions have propensity to grow forward involving the cheek and the oral cavity in many instances. Moreover, fast-growing lesions are aggressive and quickly expansile, thus becoming easily noticeable. In the present study, majority presented after 6 months, in agreement with various study across Nigeria and abroad ,,,. In low-income sub-Saharan Africa, factors such as poor health-seeking behaviour, treatment default, preference for traditional care and poverty have previously been implicated ,,. Lack of information, poverty, inaccessibility to sound healthcare and inadequate manpower could also be contributory in perpetuating this scenario ,,. The literature has shown that as much 90% of those patients with malignancies presented at advanced stage of T3 and T4 ,,,. Sometimes regional lymph node metastases have been noticed in 3.3–26% of these patients .
Swelling was the most common clinical finding in the current series. It is a distressing scenario that significantly attenuates aesthetics and could be linked to other clinical findings, including nasal obstruction, epistaxis, epiphoria, proptosis, malocclusion and others ,,,,. Anecdotally, many young patients, especially females found it quite depressing.
The histological diagnosis for maxillary lesions varies from one centre to the other ,,,,,,. The majority of reports have malignant tumours ,,,. An earlier study by Ibikunle et al. , from our centre highlighted that the maxilla was the second most affected site for oral and maxillofacial malignancies with squamous cell carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma and Burkitt lymphoma predominating. Overall, over 4/5th of lesions identified in this work were malignant. These include epithelial malignant lesions, salivary gland lesions, sarcomas and lymphoma. Alcohol, tobacco and human papilloma virus have been linked to squamous cell carcinoma occurrence . Workers in sectors such as textile, construction, petroleum, mining, smelting and woodworking are reported to be at high risk ,,. Inhaling toxic substances such as wood dust, leather dust, formaldehyde, paints, hydrocarbon, nickel, chromium, cement and some oils have been associated with sinonasal malignancies ,,.
Our result revealed that the malignant salivary gland lesions were most dominant. This is in sharp contrast with several studies that mentioned squamous cell carcinoma as the principal lesion implicated ,,,.
Ogunlewe et al.  from Lagos in a published series of 30 maxillectomy demonstrated that 26 (86.7%) were total maxillectomies; 10 maxillectomies were performed by Eziyi et al.  from Ife, six (60.0%) were total maxillectomies. The present study noted that 86.4% (n=38) of maxillectomies performed at least involved the total removal of the maxilla ([Figure 2]a, [Figure 2]b, [Figure 2]c). This is in accordance with earlier works from Lagos and Ile-Ife ,. Costly prosthetic and surgical rehabilitation are often needed to restore aesthetics, function, confidence and quality of life of the patients. Controversies rages on whether prosthetic rehabilitation with obturator or reconstruction with microvascular flaps offers the patients the most benefits ,,. Our patients were provided with prosthesis (obturator) for rehabilitation and return to function ([Figure 3]a, [Figure 3]b, [Figure 3]c). Surgical reconstruction of maxillectomy defects eliminates the need for engaging in lengthy fabrication processes of prostheses, which are often considered as bulky and cumbersome ,. These prostheses may also be difficult to insert, especially in patients with trismus and may also be challenging to retain in situ. However, some authors have opined that surgical rehabilitation of maxillectomy defects is fraught with disadvantages such as the difficulty in monitoring of the surgical bed for recurrences and possibility of reduced drainage of fluids/mucus secretions ,,. Continuous accumulation of these secretions may result in emanation of unpleasant odours from the operative site . Furthermore, surgically reconstructing the defect may entail having multiple surgeries, which may mean added costs and may necessitate the creation of multiple surgical sites ,,.
|Figure 2 (a) Clinical photograph of a patient with maxillary tumour. (b) Intraoperative photograph exposing tumour for total maxillectomy. (c) Postoperative facial profile of patient|
Click here to view
|Figure 3 (a) Intraoral maxillary surgical defect. (b) Maxillary obturator in situ for oral rehabilitation. (c) Clinical photograph of patient after prosthetic rehabilitation|
Click here to view
Radiotherapy and local or systemic chemotherapy are often needed to increase the life expectancy to this group of vulnerable patients ,,,,. Many times the prognosis is guarded despite these treatments ,. The availability and cost of these treatment modalities persistently challenge the healthcare system in Nigeria and other sub-Saharan African countries owing to chronic underfunding, lack of motivated manpower, corruption and others ,,.
| Conclusion|| |
The present work showed a male preponderance, especially in the age group 31–40 years. Total maxillectomy was the most common surgical procedure performed. Therefore, this study highlights the importance of raising awareness about maxillary tumour and early diagnosis and create environment that will ensure prompt treatment and rehabilitation such as a national universal health insurance coverage. This will improve prognosis and reduce mortality.
A.O.T., M.A., I.K.R., R.O.B., A.A.I., O.M.G, M.F.A., M.A. were involved in the concept, design, definition of intellectual content, literature search, clinical studies, experimental studies, data acquisition, data analysis, statistical analysis, manuscript preparation, manuscript editing and manuscript review.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Adeyemo WL, Taiwo OA, Ladeinde AL, Ogunlewe MO, Adeyemi MO, Adepoju AA et al.
Mid-facial fractures: a 5-year review in a Nigerian teaching Hospital. Niger J Med 2012; 21:31–35.
Kumar P, Alvi HA, Rao J, Singh BP, Jurel SK, Kumar L. Assessment of the quality of life in maxillectomy patients: a longitudinal study. J Adv Prosthodont 2013; 5:29–35.
Arotiba GT, Ladeinde AL. Considerations in maxillectomy for antral malignant neoplasms. Niger J Clin Pract 2001; 4:54–58.
Ogunlewe MO, Somefun AO, Nwawolo CC. Maxillary antral carcinoma. A five year study at The Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH) Nigeria. Niger J Clin Pract 2001; 4:80–83.
Murad N, Zakirullah XX, Ghani F. Types of maxillary tumour and the resulting post surgical defects in patients in a teaching hospital. J Postgrad Med Inst 2012; 26:106–110.
Ibikunle AA, Taiwo OA, Braimah RO. Oral and Maxillofacial malignancies: an analysis of 77 cases seen at an academic medical hospital. J Orofac Sci 2016; 8:80–85. [Full text]
Eziyi JAE, Amusa YB, Fatusi O, Otogbile B. Challenges of surgical management of maxillary tumours in a developing country. J Med Med Sci 2014; 5:162–168.
Jham BC, Mesquita RA, Aguiar MCF, Vieira do Carmo MA. A case of maxillary sinus carcinoma. Oral Oncol Extra 2006; 42:157–159.
Cordeiro PG, Santamaria E. A classification system and algorithm for reconstruction of maxillectomy and midfacial defects. Plast Reconstr Surg 2000; 105:2331–2346.
Andrades P, Militsakh O, Hanasono MM. Current strategies in reconstruction of maxillectomy defects. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2011; 137:806–812.
Arigbede AO, Dosunmu OO, Shaba OP, Esan TA. Evaluation of speech in patients with partial surgically acquired defects: pre and post prosthetic obturation. J Contemp Dent Pract 2006; 7:89–96.
Durrani Z, Hussain SG, Alam SA. A study of classification systems for maxillectomy defects. J Pak Prosthodont Assoc 2013; 1:117–124.
Omo JO, Sede MA, Enabulele JE. Prosthetic rehabilitation of patients with maxillary defects in a Nigerian tertiary hospital. Ann Med Health Sci Res 2014; 4:630–633.
] [Full text]
Okay D, Genden EM, Buchbinder D, Urken ML. Prosthodontic guidelines for surgical reconstruction of the maxilla: a classification system of defects. J Prosthet Dent 2001; 86:352–363.
Brown JS, Rojers SN, McNally DN, Boyle M. A modified classification for the maxillectomy defect. Head Neck 2000; 22:17–26.
Spiro RM, Strong EW, Shah JP. Maxillectomy and its classification. Head Neck 1997; 19:309–314.
Aramaney MA. Basic principles of obturator design for partially edentulous patients. Part I: classification. J Prosthet Dent 1978; 40:554–557.
Adeola DS, Obiadazie AC. Orofacial carcinoma in Kaduna. Nig J Surg Research 2006; 8:144–147.
Bassey GO, Osunde OD, Anyanechi CE. Maxillofacial tumours and tumor-like lesions in a Nigerian teaching hospital: an eleven year retrospective analysis. Afr Health Sci 2014; 14:56–63.
Fasunla AJ, Lasisi AO. Sinonasal cancer: a 10-year review in a tertiary health institution. J Natl Med Assoc 2007; 99:1407–1410.
Carrillo JF, Guemes A, Ramirez-Ortega MC, Onate-Ocana LF. Prognostic factors in maxillary sinus and nasal cavity carcinoma. Eur J Surg Oncology 2005; 31:1206–1212.
Iseh KR, Amutta SB, Shehu BB, Nasir J. Combined transfacial and transcranial approach for tumours of the nose and paranasal sinuses with intracranial extension. Niger J Med 2011; 28:371–375.
Rogers SN, Lowe D, McNally D, Brown JS, Vaughan ED. Health-related quality of life after maxillectomy: A comparison between prosthetic obturation and free flap. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2003; 61:174–181.
Meenakshi A, Shah D. The obturator prostheses for maxillectomy. SRM J Res Dent Sci 2012; 3:193–197. [Full text]
Soni R, Jindal S, Singh BP, Mittal N, Chaturvedi TP, Prithviraj DR. Oral rehabilitation of a patient with sub-total maxillectomy. Contemp Clin Dent 2011; 2:63–65.
] [Full text]
[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]